CAT | Pet Health

“Dog Flu” aka Canine Influenza… Is your Pet at risk?

Friday, July 21st, 2017

Recently, we’ve been receiving questions from some of our pet owners about dog flu. They were concerned about stories they had seen or read in the news about outbreaks. In answering their questions, we realized that all of our dog owners may have similar questions and concerns. So, we’re writing to tell you about dog flu, what puts dogs at risk and what can be done to protect them.

Dog flu is a relatively new disease and can be caused by two different canine influenza virus strains, H3N8 and H3N2. Both strains of dog flu virus cause respiratory disease in dogs. Affected dogs may develop coughing, nasal discharge, fever, lethargy and loss of appetite. The signs of infection are similar to those of other respiratory diseases in dogs. With proper medical attention, most dogs will recover. However, in some cases, dog flu can progress to a more severe or even life-threatening condition, such as pneumonia.

Dog flu is highly contagious, so visiting places where dogs socialize or congregate, such as doggie day cares, dog parks, groomers, boarding facilities, dog shows, and urban locations, places dogs at higher risk for becoming infected. Making the situation even more difficult to control is that dogs can spread the virus before signs of illness appear.

The best way to protect your dog from dog flu is through vaccination. Fortunately, there is a vaccine now available for both dog flu strains. The initial vaccination requires two doses, given 2 to 4 weeks apart. Thereafter, an annual booster is recommended for continued protection.

Protect Your Pet against Dog Flu

We recommend vaccinating dogs against dog flu. Please call us to discuss any questions you might have and to set up an appointment.

To learn more about dog flu, you can also visit

PetsMatter | House-soiling cats: What you can do to stop them

Tuesday, April 5th, 2016

If your cat is urinating or defecating anywhere other than his litter box, you probably find yourself at your wits’ end. Though house soiling can seem like a deal breaker, it doesn’t have to be. There are ways to remedy the situation so the cat can stay and the behavior goes.

Save your cat

According to the National Council on Pet Population, 72 percent of cats surrendered to animal shelters in the U.S. are euthanized, and research journals in the fields of animal behavior and companionship cite house soiling as the primary reason they are relinquished in the first place.

“One factor that may be underlying this is that 66 percent of owners think that cats act out of spite,” says Ilona Rodan, DVM, DABVP (F), medical director and founder of AAHA-accredited Cat Care Clinic in Madison, Wisconsin. “Nothing could be further from the truth.”

Instead, she says, it’s because the cat’s physical, social, or medical needs are not being met.

See your veterinarian

The first step in resolving a house soiling problem is to schedule an appointment with your veterinarian as soon as you notice a problem.

Rodan, who primarily evaluates cats for behavioral issues, says she often diagnoses medical problems as well. “For example, an owner may think the cat is not using the box because of a new cat [in the house], but a medical workup will reveal bladder stones or intestinal parasites,” she says.

Some cats may even develop life-threatening urinary obstructions because their owners misinterpreted their behavior as acting out, Rodan says, which is why it is essential to get a diagnosis and treatment plan in place as soon as possible.

If a medical diagnosis cannot be confirmed, additional assistance from a board-certified veterinary behaviorist may be recommended.

Marking: Sexual or reactionary?

First, it is important to note the difference between urinating and marking or spraying. When marking or spraying, cats tend to stand upright and eliminate a small amount on vertical surfaces. When urinating, cats usually squat and eliminate larger amounts on horizontal surfaces.

The 2014 American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) and International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) Guidelines for Diagnosing and Solving House-Soiling Behavior in Cats explains that urine spraying is either a sexual or a reactionary behavior.

Sexual marking

Is your cat spayed or neutered? According to the AAFP and ISFM guidelines, intact male and female cats both exhibit sexual marking to advertise their presence and availability.

Spaying or neutering an intact cat will dramatically reduce sexually-related marking.

Reactionary marking

If your cat is spayed or neutered, reactionary marking should be considered.

Introduction of another pet, person, new furniture, or other objects into your home can change the collective odor that the cat is used to, and can stress him enough to induce urine marking behavior.

Suitcases, backpacks, and shoes pick up new scents outside the household, so it is a good idea to keep these out of your cat’s reach. Items that change in temperature, such as stoves, toasters, and other electronic equipment, are also frequent marking targets.

The AAFP and ISFM guidelines state that marking behavior that starts at windows and doors usually suggests the perceived threat is coming from outside the home. Try blocking the cat’s view of windows and doors if he seems triggered by another animal outside. Make sure your cat’s food, water, and resting area are located away from windows and glass doors as well.

Initial marking in stairways, hallways, and doorways, as well as in the centers of rooms, usually indicates stressors originating from within the household.

Judy Torchia, DVM, of Nippers Corner Pet Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee, says a cat may also respond to a new animal or person in the house by marking his territory. “They will use the urine marking posture, with or without urinating to do this,” she says.

Looks like marking

Rodan reminds us that spraying, however, can occur for other reasons. It is possible for a cat to look like he is in the spraying or marking position, when he is actually unable to urinate properly due to a medical issue, she says.

“A cat may have bladder stones, stress, or another underlying cause of spraying, so it is very important to have the cat examined and diagnostic tests performed to identify medical problems as soon as possible,” she says.

Stay positive

It is important to note that physically or verbally punishing the cat during or after a house-soiling incident only creates stress, which then increases the motivation to soil—and often in less obvious areas.

Instead, behavior modification efforts should focus on positive reinforcement of desired behaviors. Rewards may include affection, positive attention, treats, or whatever your cat likes.

Clean frequently

Cats will frequently soil the same areas repeatedly. Urine odor changes with time, and frequent marking keeps the odor consistent. Therefore, it is important to clean urine-marked areas regularly.

The AAFP and ISFM guidelines suggest scrubbing the affected area with a 10 percent solution of biological washing powder (enzyme-based laundry detergent), allowing the area to dry, and then spraying the area with isopropyl alcohol.

Chlorine-based products will remove odors from concrete and vinyl floors, but be sure to avoid using ammonia-based cleaners, which smell like urine to a cat.

Try pheromones

Pheromone therapy studies referenced in the AAFP and ISFM guidelines indicate that environmental use of synthetic pheromones can result in up to 90 percent cessation or reduction in urine spraying behavior. This effect can last even after discontinuing use of the pheromone product.

Adding a pheromone diffuser near the litter box may make the location more appealing.

Work together for the right outcome

No matter the cause, it is important to work with your veterinarian and your cat to remedy the situation. The reward of keeping a happy, healthy cat always makes it all worth it!

Source: PetsMatter | House-soiling cats: What you can do to stop them

Behavior Problems in Pets

Friday, March 6th, 2015

Pets are important members of the family. A good portion of them live inside our homes and as such we have become more aware of their behavior issues- both large and small.  While behavior issues may not be a medical problem per se, we, as vets can help diagnose and treat these issues.

If your pet has developed a new behavior or if your pet has a behavior that concerns or bothers you we recommend scheduling a visit.  We will ask you to detail the problem, any surrounding circumstances and changes in the household.  Many behavior problems can be due to a medical problem.  Such as- a urinary tract infection will cause a cat to urinate on the couch, gastric reflux may cause a pet to vomit in the house, arthritis can cause a dog to bite.

Once medical causes are ruled out we will discuss behavior training and the possible use of behavior medications.  There are lots of different options to help with different behaviors.  Examples include treat balls and feliway for stressed cats, thundershirts for dogs with storm fear, distraction training for dogs with OCD, etc.

Within our practice Dr Jill Child has gained a reputation for enjoying the challenge of behavior cases.  She will gladly help solve small issues and work with owners to help manage large issues.  Severe issues sometimes require a referral to a veterinary behaviorist to set up a plan.  Once a plan is set up we will help with maintenance.

We endeavor to improve all aspects of your pet’s health and welcome your behavior questions!

Dr Jill Child

Dealing with Obesity in Cats

Thursday, January 29th, 2015

obese-cat-istock-000031410062smallFeline obesity is a serious problem that has become more common as cats have become primarily indoor.  When cats are spending more of their time outdoors they have a more active lifestyle with stalking and roaming.  Bringing cats indoors has certainly made them safer as we have taken away the risks from cars and other animals but we have also made them more sedentary.  The typical indoor cat spends their day resting with very little play time or movement around the house.  Combine this lack of activity with readily available food and we have an epidemic of feline obesity.  Feline obesity predisposes a cat to arthritis, diabetes and other diseases.

Keeping an indoor cat an appropriate weight is a challenge.  Starting when they are young we need to set up healthy habits that adjust for their indoor lifestyle. 

The first challenge to address is food.  Very few cats will keep a healthy weight when they have food set out all the time.  This practice is known as “free feeding”.  Most cats must have a measured amount of food each day given in several meals.  I prefer using both dry and canned food so if we need to make adjustments due to disease we  have already had exposure to different food types.  As most cats hit adulthood their calorie needs go down dramatically.  Many of these cats will need a low calorie food to balance their caloric needs.

The second challenge is keeping indoor cats active.  Stimulating activity is helpful not only in keeping cats a healthy weight but also the mental stimulation is good for them.  Starting as kittens, many types of cat toys should be introduced and cycled frequently to keep them interesting.  If you are tying to get an adult cat to play you should start with several types, including feather toys, scratch toys and balls.cattoys2

Adult obese pets are often difficult to entice to play. A great way to get them started are feeding toys.  These help to give the cat the enjoyment they receive from eating over a longer time as well as some physical activity.  These feeding toys come in a wide variety including balls, mazes and others.  I have seen great success when these are implemented.catfoodtoy_

Feline obesity is a very slow problem to resolve.  Even when every measure is taken it will take several years to get an obese cat down to a healthy weight.  Most cats will loose one to two pounds each year with any weight loss plan.  Prevention of feline obesity is the key to treating this disease.

Jill Child DVM

10 Tips for Safely Running with Your Dog

Tuesday, December 30th, 2014

max_zoey_hands-free_leashMany people get a dog as a jogging partner and they make great ones! But before you hit the trail, here are some tips to make sure you have a safe and enjoyable workout with your best bud.

#1 – Plan Your Route

Make sure you know the route you are taking and that it is dog friendly. Also, make sure your dog is up to the difficulty and length of the trek.

#2 – In Good Health

Before you leave, make sure your dog is up to the trip. Look for signs of lameness. If your dog has been ill, get your vet’s okay first.

tell a friend cell

#3 – Tell a Friend

Let someone know where you are going, especially if it’s far away, remote, or in a bad part of town. It’s just the smart thing to do.

#4 – Treats & Water

We all know water is important. The treats are good to have in case you get in a situation where you training comes into play (especially a reactive dog), but they are also good to have on hand in case the worst happens and you get stuck out there or you can throw them to distract a loose dog you encounter.

#5 – Proper Attire

Not just for you, but your dog. Think about the weather – is it hot or cold? Does your dog need a coat or a cooling vest? What about booties to protect his feet?

#6 – Clipped Nails

Make sure your dog’s nails are trimmed up before heading out. If he catches one it can tear, which will bleed like crazy and you will end up carrying your dog back.

#7 – Proper Gear

It is very important to have collar/leash/harness in good condition. A spare leash is always a good thing to carry along. Make sure your dog can’t slip his collar – a martingale is a good choice for that reason.

#8 – Leash

Using a leash made for running will make things easier for you – lightweight and hands-free – they give you back your hands for balance, etc. Do not use a flexi-lead.

#9 – Wait after Eating

To avoid bloat, make sure you give your dog time to digest food before running. An hour is usually enough, but you should ask your vet about your dog’s specific risks and what’s good for him.

#10 – Stretching

Both you and your pup should stretch after you run. It helps prevent injury and excessive soreness.


Dog Flu 101

Tuesday, December 2nd, 2014

Dog FluIt’s flu season, and not just for humans!  According to the Center for Disease and Control (CDC), Canine Influenza Virus (H3N8) or “Dog Flu” is a contagious respiratory disease that is easily transmitted through our dogs.  Because Canine Influenza Virus is a relatively new virus, most dogs have not been exposed to it before.

A small percentage of dogs can experience very serious complications such as pneumonia, just like the humans infected with influenza.

Dr. Jeff Werber is an Emmy Awarding winning veterinarian and cares for the pets of some of Hollywood’s biggest stars. He answered our questions about the Dog Flu and if you should be worried.

What is Dog Flu? 

Dog flu or Canine Influenza is a contagious respiratory disease in dogs caused by a specific Type A influenza virus (H3N8).  The “canine influenza virus” was originally an equine (horse) influenza virus that spread to dogs in 2004 and can now spread between dogs.

It is similar to the swine flu that affects humans. It’s not a new flu, but has been around for about 10 years.

Is there a risk to humans?

To date, there is no evidence of transmission of canine influenza virus from dogs to humans. However, the CDC explains that influenza viruses are “constantly changing and it is possible for a virus to change so that it could infect humans and spread easily between humans. Such a virus could represent a pandemic influenza threat. For this reason, CDC and its partners are monitoring the H3N8 influenza virus (as well as other animal influenza viruses) very closely. In general, however, canine influenza viruses are considered to pose a low threat to humans.” As mentioned earlier, while these viruses are well established in horse and dog populations, there is no evidence of infection among humans with this virus.”

How high is the risk to dogs?

There have been outbreaks of “canine flu” since 2004. One of the vaccine companies offered free influenza testing to veterinarians. I must have sent in 25-30 swabs to be checked and had no positive results. Most respiratory cases are going to be para influenza or other bacterial infections but not the influenza virus, the “canine flu.”

How is it Spread?

Canine influenza virus can be spread to other dogs by direct contact with aerosolized respiratory secretions (sputum and saliva) from infected dogs, by uninfected dogs coming into contact with contaminated objects, and by moving contaminated objects or materials between infected and uninfected dogs. Therefore, dog owners whose dogs are coughing or showing other signs of respiratory disease should not expose other dogs to the virus. Clothing, equipment, surfaces, and hands should be cleaned and disinfected after exposure to dogs showing signs of respiratory disease.  Some dogs are asymptomatic (show no signs of the disease) so it may difficult to take precautions.

It does seem to attack where dogs are either housed together like in boarding/kennel situation, or congregate, such as a dog park.

Is there a vaccine?

There is available a canine influenza virus vaccine, Nobivac® Canine Flu H3N8, but it does not prevent the virus, rather it minimizes the severity of its impact and its spread. There are few side effects reported.

What is the treatment?

About 80% of the dogs with the flu will have a mild form of the disease characterized by cough, nasal discharge and fever that will resolve over time with appropriate therapy.  A small proportion of dogs can develop severe disease.  These dogs experience complications such as pneumonia, just like the humans infected with influenza.

If contracted, there is no specific anti-viral medication; the dog is treated with supportive care which often includes antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections. High quality nutrition and a stress free environment is also recommended. Treatment largely consists of supportive care. This helps the dog mount an immune response. In the milder form of the disease, this care may include medication to make your dog more comfortable and fluids to ensure that your dog remains well-hydrated.

The goal is to support the body to maximize its effectiveness in fighting the virus.


If your dog exhibits respiratory symptoms, coughing, runny nose, fever, lethargy, see your veterinarian. Most likely, your dog just has a regular cold or maybe Kennel Cough. Even so, they will feel better quicker with a vet’s help.

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Questions and Answers about Ebola & Pets

Wednesday, October 15th, 2014


The ongoing epidemic of Ebola in West Africa has raised several questions about how the disease affects the animal population, and in particular, the risk to household pets. While the information available suggests that the virus may be found in several kinds of animals, CDC, the US Department of Agriculture, and the American Veterinary Medical Association do not believe that pets are at significant risk for Ebola in the United States.

How are animals involved in Ebola outbreaks?

Because the natural reservoir host of Ebola has not yet been confirmed, the way in which the virus first appears in a human at the start of an outbreak is unknown. However, scientists believe that the first patient becomes infected through contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or primate (apes and monkeys), which is called a spillover event. Person-to-person transmission follows and can lead to large numbers of affected persons. In some past Ebola outbreaks, primates were also affected by Ebola, and multiple spillover events occurred when people touched or ate infected primates. In the current West African epidemic, animals have not been found to be a factor in ongoing Ebola transmission.

How does Ebola spread?

When infection occurs in humans, the virus can be spread in several ways to others. Ebola is spread through direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes in, for example, the eyes, nose, or mouth) with

  • blood or body fluids (including but not limited to urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen) of a person who is sick with Ebola
  • objects (like needles and syringes) that have been contaminated with the virus
  • Ebola is not spread through the air or by water, or in general, by food. However, in Africa, Ebola may be spread as a result of handling bushmeat (wild animals hunted for food) and contact with infected bats.
  • Only a few species of mammals (for example, humans, monkeys, and apes) have shown the ability to become infected with and spread Ebola virus. There is no evidence that mosquitos or other insects can transmit Ebola virus.

Can dogs get infected or sick with Ebola?

At this time, there have been no reports of dogs or cats becoming sick with Ebola or of being able to spread Ebola to people or other animals. Even in areas in Africa where Ebola is present, there have been no reports of dogs and cats becoming sick with Ebola. There is limited evidence that dogs become infected with Ebola virus, but there is no evidence that they develop disease.

Here in the United States, are our dogs and cats at risk of becoming sick with Ebola?

The risk of an Ebola outbreak affecting multiple people in the United States is very low. Therefore, the risk to pets is also very low, as they would have to come into contact with blood and body fluids of a person with Ebola. Even in areas in Africa where Ebola is present, there have been no reports of dogs and cats becoming sick with Ebola.

Can I get Ebola from my dog or cat?

At this time, there have been no reports of dogs or cats becoming sick with Ebola or of being able to spread Ebola to people or animals. The chances of a dog or cat being exposed to Ebola virus in the United States is very low as they would have to come into contact with blood and body fluids of a symptomatic person sick with Ebola.

Can my pet’s body, fur, or paws spread Ebola to a person?

We do not yet know whether or not a pet’s body, paws, or fur can pick up and spread Ebola to people or other animals. It is important to keep people and animals away from blood or body fluids of a person with symptoms of Ebola infection.

What if there is a pet in the home of an Ebola patient?

CDC recommends that public health officials in collaboration with a veterinarian evaluate the pet’s risk of exposure to the virus (close contact or exposure to blood or body fluids of an Ebola patient). Based on this evaluation as well as the specific situation, local and state human and animal health officials will determine how the pet should be handled.

Can I get my dog or cat tested for Ebola?

There would not be any reason to test a dog or cat for Ebola if there was no exposure to a person infected with Ebola. Currently, routine testing for Ebola is not available for pets.

What are the requirements for bringing pets or other animals into the United States from West Africa?

CDC regulations require that dogs and cats imported into the United States be healthy. Dogs must be vaccinated against rabies before arrival into the United States. Monkeys and African rodents are not allowed to be imported as pets under any circumstances.

Each state and U.S. Territory has its own rules for pet ownership and importation, and these rules may be different from federal regulations. Airlines may have additional requirements.

Can monkeys spread Ebola?

Yes, monkeys are at risk for Ebola. Symptoms of Ebola infection in monkeys include fever, decreased appetite, and sudden death. Monkeys should not be allowed to have contact with anyone who may have Ebola. Healthy monkeys already living in the United States and without exposure to a person infected with Ebola are not at risk for spreading Ebola.

Can bats spread Ebola?

Fruit bats in Africa are considered to be a natural reservoir for Ebola. Bats in North America are not known to carry Ebola and so CDC considers the risk of an Ebola outbreak from bats occurring in the United States to be very low. However, bats are known to carry rabies and other diseases here in the United States. To reduce the risk of disease transmission, never attempt to touch a bat, living or dead.

Where can I find more information about Ebola and pet dogs and cats?

CDC is currently working with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the American Veterinary Medical Association, and many other partners to develop additional guidance for the U.S. pet population. Additional information and guidance will be posted on this website as well as partner websites as soon as it becomes available.

For additional information on Ebola visit ( 

Anal Glands

Friday, September 19th, 2014

Anal glands are a scent gland that sits just inside the anal opening in both cats and dogs. If functioning normally, they empty onto the feces as an animal defecates. In some animals, primarily small dogs, they do not empty properly and can become impacted and then abscessed.
When an anal gland abscesses, a small opening happens in the skin. The opening drains pus and anal gland secretions.
If a dog or cat is having frequent infections and impactions we recommend removal of the anal glands. Each gland and associated duct is removed from a small skin incision next to the anus. When this surgery is done by an experienced surgeon, such as Dr.Mordaunt, it is a fast and effective treatment to a long term problem. If you suspect your pet has anal gland problems please bring them in for us to assess them.

Anal gland diagram

A Very Special Boy and His Very Special Dog…

Monday, August 25th, 2014


Owen Howkins and Haatchi both know what it means to be dealt a tough hand. Owen was born with a rare genetic disease called Schwartz-Jampel Syndrome which means his muscles are always tensed. Haatchi, a beautiful Anatolian Shepherd was just ten months old when a barbaric human tied him to a railroad track and left him to die.

Haatchi was hit by a train and lay suffering for days before he was rescued. His severely damaged leg had to be amputated and he lost part of his tail. With his injuries it was hard to find a home for Haatchi but then Will Howkins, Owen’s dad, adopted him.

Whatever he may be missing in limbs he makes up for with heart. And he has transformed 7-year-old Owen’s life.

Owen became self conscious about his appearance and realized he was different when he was quite young. Soon he no longer wanted to leave the house. But since Haatchi came into his life he can’t wait to go outside and take him for walks.

Dad Will, who is an engineer in the British air force, said boy and dog hate to be apart. Haatchi has now completed a Pets as Therapy training course and will visit military amputees injured in Iraq and Afghanistan.

The famous Crufts dog show in England honored Haatchi this year with its Friends for Life award — but the real reward is the special bond he has with Owen.

From the June 2013 issue of Cesar’s Way magazine.

Read more:

Ringworm in Dogs

Thursday, July 10th, 2014

dog running - morguefile




Dermatophytosis in Dogs

Dermatophytosis is the medical term for a parasitic fungal infection that affects the skin, hair, and/or nails (claws). The most commonly isolated fungal organisms are Microsporum canis (more commonly referred to as ringworm), Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Microsporum gypseum. This disease occurs in dogs, cats, and other mammals. It is diagnosed more commonly in young animals than in old.

The condition or disease described in this medical article can affect both dogs and cats. If you would like to learn more about how this disease affects cats please visit this page in the PetMD health library.

Symptoms and Types

Symptoms of dermatophytosis include accumulations of surface skin cells, such as seen in dandruff (scales); poor hair coat; reddened skin (erythema); darkened skin (hyperpigmentation); itchiness (pruritus); and hair loss (alopecia), which may be patchy or circular. Other indications of dermatophytosis that are readily apparent on the skin are raised, rounded, knotty (nodular) lesions known as granulomatous lesions, or boils, and raised nodular lesions that frequently ooze (kerions), the result of ringworm infection. There may also be inflammation of the claw folds — the folds of skin bordering the nail, and medically referred to as paronychia.

Occasionally, dogs are classified as inapparent carriers — harboring the disease-causing fungus, but presenting no visible signs of the condition. However, even these dogs are contagious to humans and other animals.


Dogs most commonly develop dermatophytosis because of infections with the fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The incidence of each fungus varies according to your geographical location.

Diseases or medications that decrease the body’s ability to develop a normal immune response (known as immunocompromising diseases, or immunosuppressive medications, respectively) can increase the likelihood that your dog will be susceptible to a fungal infection of the skin, hair, and/or nails, as well as increase the potential for a more severe infection. Environments that are densely populated with animals (for example, in an animal shelter or kennel), or where there is poor nutrition, poor management practices, and lack of adequate quarantine period, will also increase risk of infection.


Your veterinarian will perform a fungal culture of skin clippings, a microscopic examination of a sample of hair, and possibly a skin biopsy.


Most dogs can be treated on an outpatient basis, but quarantine procedures should be considered due to the infective and zoonotic (transmittable to humans) nature of some types of dermatophytosis. If your veterinarian needs to prescribe antifungal medications, the use of an Elizabethan collar (a wide collar placed around the neck) is recommended to prevent ingestion of antifungal medications applied to the dog’s skin.

Living and Management

A fungal culture is the only means of truly monitoring your dog’s response to treatment. Many animals will improve clinically, but remain fungal culture positive. It is advisable to repeat fungal cultures toward the end of treatment, and continue treatment until at least one culture result is negative. In resistant cases, fungal cultures may be repeated on a weekly basis, and treatment continued until two to three consecutive negative results are obtained. Complete blood counts should be performed weekly or biweekly for animals receiving griseofulvin, an anti-fungous antibiotic. Also, blood work to monitor the liver may be indicated for dogs receiving ketoconazole or itraconazole, two types of anti-fungal medications.


To prevent reinfection from other animals, the use of a quarantine period, and fungal (dermatophyte) cultures of all animals living in the household are necessary. Treatment of exposed animals should be considered to prevent repeated development of infection. The possibility of rodents aiding in the spread of the disease should be considered. If you suspect that your dog has access to rodents, or that rodents are in your immediate environment, it is highly advised that you take the necessary steps to eliminate the pests.


SOURCE: Veterinary Team Brief

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